1019. Verse 19. And the great city was divided into three parts, signifies that all things of the doctrine of truth from the Word were dissipated. This is evident from the signification of "city" as being doctrine (see n. 223); and all things of doctrine from the Word are meant because it is called the "great city;" all things of the doctrine of truth are meant because it is added that "the cities of the nations fell," and this signifies all things of the doctrine of good; for doctrine treats both of truths, which are predicated of faith, and of goods, which are predicated of love; therefore it is said doctrine of truth and the doctrine of good. Also from the signification of "divided into three parts," as meaning to be dissipated. "To be divided into three parts" means to be dissipated, because "three" signifies all, the whole, and fullness, and when these are divided there is a dissipation. (That "three" signifies all, the whole, and fullness, and is predicated of truths, see above n. 532.) "To be divided into three parts" has a like signification in Ezekiel (5:2.)
(The Eighth Commandment)
 The eighth commandment of the Decalogue, "Thou shalt not bear false witness," shall now be explained. "To bear false witness" signifies in the sense nearest to the letter to lie about the neighbor by accusing him falsely. But in the internal sense it signifies to call what is just unjust, and what is unjust just, and to confirm this by means of falsities; while in the inmost sense it signifies to falsify the truth and good of the Word, and on the other hand to prove a falsity of doctrine to be true by confirming it by means of fallacies, appearances, fabrications, knowledges falsely applied, sophistries and the like. The confirmations themselves and the consequent persuasions are false witnesses, for they are false testimonies. From this it can be seen that what is here meant is not only false witness before a judge, but even a judge himself who in perverting right makes what is just unjust, and what is unjust just, for he as well as the witness himself acts the part of a false witness. The same is true of every man who makes what is right to appear crooked, and what is crooked to appear right; likewise any ecclesiastical leader who falsifies the truth of the Word and perverts its good. In a word, every falsification of truth, spiritual, moral, and civil, which is done from an evil heart, is false witness.